## Ordinary Least Squares

Let’s estimate a stock’s beta and alpha using the CAPM. First prepare the data by calculating stock returns and market returns. Subtract the risk-free rate from both and form a data.frame called “urdata” where ExRet is the excess return on the stock and MktRP is the risk premium on the market. Next, specify the formula for the estimated model and call it “m2”. Use the lm() function to estimate the model and assign the results to a variable called “ols”. Finally, use summary() to see the regression results.

```m2=ExRet~MktRP
ols=lm(m2,data=urdata)
summary(ols)```

If you are using a lot of fixed effects, try using coef(ols)[1:5,] to get the first 5 rows of coefficients.

## LaTeX Template

Learning LaTeX can be daunting if you don’t know where to start. Here is a template for a standard paper that only has text. Tables, figures, and equations can be added later and there are plenty of examples available to those who spend a few minutes on Google. I recommend using a web based LaTeX distribution like Overleaf or ShareLaTeX to get started but eventually you will want to install LaTeX on your own computer.

documentclass[a4paper]{article} usepackage[english]{babel} usepackage[utf8]{inputenc} usepackage{geometry} geometry{body={6.5in, 9.0in}, left=1.0in, top=1.0in} usepackage{setspace,anysize} usepackage{harvard}
author{ {small textbf{Your Name}} \ { small University or Organizationthanks{primary contact information.}} \ }
date{today}

begin{document} maketitle singlespacing

noindent textit{Keywords:} \ \ noindent textit{JEL classification:} letthefootnoterelaxfootnotetext{*Thank people that helped you get data or made suggestions to improve your paper.}

newpage setcounter{page}{1} doublespacing

section*{Introduction} Describe your question, why it is important, and how other people have contributed to the knowledge about the subject.

section*{Methodology} How are you going to investigate your question?

section*{Conclusion} What does it all mean?

begin{thebibliography}{999} singlespacing

harvarditem[]{}{}{}LastName, F., 2012. Paper Title. textit{Journal}, 104(3), 519–534. harvarditem[]{}{}{}LastName, F., 2012. Another Paper. textit{Journal}, 104(3), 519–534.

end{thebibliography}

end{document}

Posted on Categories Code

## Pastor and Stambaugh Liquidity

While there a many measures of liquidity, the metric in Pastor and Stambaugh (2003) is the standard used in empirical asset pricing. The first thing we need is daily data. Academics can use the CRSP data set but the idea can be replicated with free data. You will need Date, unique stock identifier (I use CUSIP but ticker works just as well), Volume, Return (make sure to include dividends), and the market return (Here I use the CRSP value weighted index but any broad value weighted index should work). Assuming you’ve already formatted the date properly and the data so everything is numeric and not factor or string, we start with a panel I’ve named ‘crsp’. I also recommend setting up a parallel backend to make use of all your CPU cores. Here I use the parallel package but if you have multiple machines be sure to check out doRedis for a relatively simple way to make the poor man’s computer cluster.

```require(data.table); require(doParallel);
require(parallel); require(foreach);
registerDoParallel(detectCores()-1) # Keep 1 CPU core for the OS
setnames(crsp,c('PERMNO','Date','Ticker','CUSIP','Price','Volume','Return','Shares','MktReturn'))
crsp=crsp[Price>5]; crsp[,MktCap:=1000*Shares*Price];
crsp=crsp[MktCap>1000000]
crsp[,Date:=as.Date(as.character(Date),format='%Y%m%d')];
crsp[,Month:=as.yearmon(Date)]; crsp[,Return:=as.numeric(Return)]
#### Create Metrics ##############################################
crsp[,Ret.e:=Return-MktReturn];
crsp[,SVolume:=Volume*(Ret.e/abs(Ret.e))]
crsp=crsp[,list(Date,Month,CUSIP,Ret.e,L.Ret.e,L.SVolume)]
#### Eliminate months with insufficient observations #############
crsp[,Obs:=length(na.omit(L.Ret.e)),by=c("CUSIP","Month")]
crsp=crsp[Obs>10]
#### Run model on daily data for each month ######################
model=Ret.e~L.Ret.e+L.SVolume
gammas=foreach(cusip=unique(crsp[,CUSIP]),.combine='rbind') %dopar% {
stock=crsp[CUSIP==cusip];
stock[,Gamma:=coef(lm(model,data=.SD)),by=c('Month')]
stock=unique(stock[,list(Month,CUSIP,Gamma)]); return(stock)
}
save(gammas,file=paste(path,'Panels/Liquidity_Panel.RData',sep=''))```
Posted on Categories Code, R

## Emacs and ESS on OS X for Beginners

When I first started learning R, I used R Commander as my GUI since it worked with all my operating systems and was relatively easy to setup and use. After a few months, I came to appreciate the simplicity of the RGui that is standard on R installation. Now, I am ready for something more advanced and have decided to try ESS (Emacs Speaks Statistics). Since I do not have any prior experience with Emacs and have not invested any time creating configuration settings and learning keyboard shortcuts, my main goal was to get a very Mac friendly Emacs version that just worked. OS X does come with Emacs installed but I didn’t want to go through the hassle of setting up ESS with the existing EMacs. I decided to use Aquamacs because it looks and behaves the most like a modern OS X application and has ESS enabled when installed. Emacs is available through the terminal but setting up and using ESS without menus does not provide an easier working environment than the RGUI or R Commander.

Emacs uses what are called meta commands since it originated before toolbars. To execute a meta command, type <Ctrl> u, <alt> x and the actual command. On Aquamacs, the right option key is set up to be the meta key so you can simply press <option> x before the actual command. You can also use the <esc> key as the meta key. To start R, press <option> x R <return> or <esc> x R <return>. You can also open an existing R script and click the R icon to start R. To customize ESS, select Customize Aquamacs -> Customize Group… from the Options menu and type ess at the prompt. You can also click the settings icon only after you have opened an R script. I like to have ESS start from the the same directory every time so I add my directory to the “ESS Directory” option and turn off the “ESS Ask for ESS Directory” option. Make sure to “Save for future sessions” before closing the buffer. I had already deleted R32 so I know that Emacs will default to R64 but I’m not sure how to work with both versions.

Update: I have now switched to RStudio since it is free, cross platform compatible, and simple to setup. I highly recommend it to any R user.

Posted on Categories Code, R

## Two-Way Sorting

One of the popular ways to motivate a two dimensional model is to double sort your data based on quantiles. This makes empirical asset pricing models exceedingly easy to understand. If I had already defined the breakpoints of the sort, I could just use a function like “plyr” to apply a function like “mean” to the data subsets. For my application, I want to create five portfolios based on one characteristic and then form five portfolio within each of the first five based on another characteristic. To generalize from a 5×5 sort, I include the parameter q to allow for quarters or deciles. The x and y parameters are the column names of the characteristics you want to sort by. As you can see from the last line, I am sorting by CDS premium and liquidity premium. I use latex for my publication needs so I output the dataframe to xtable. I also use the awesome foreach package to speed things up a tiny bit but if you don’t use a parallel backend with foreach, then just replace “%dopar%” with “%do%”. Happy sorting!

```require(foreach); require(xtable)
doublesort=function(data,x,y,q) {
breaks1=quantile(data[,x],probs=seq(0,1,1/q))
tiles=foreach(i=1:q,.combine=cbind) %dopar% {
Q=data[data[,x]>=breaks1[i] & data[,x]<breaks1[i+1],y]
breaks2=quantile(Q,probs=seq(0,1,1/q))
foreach(j=1:q,.combine=rbind) %dopar%
mean(Q[Q>=breaks2[j] & Q<breaks2[j+1]])
}
colnames(tiles)=foreach(i=1:q) %do% paste(x,i)
row.names(tiles)=foreach(i=1:q) %do% paste(y,i)
tiles
}
xtable(doublesort(data,"CDS","lp",5),digits=4)
```
Posted on Categories Code, R

## Dashboards

Precious Metals Dashboard
This R script produces charts of Gold, Platinum, Palladium, and Silver.

```# Charts Gold prices in USD from Oanda
require(Quantmod)
#fetch data
getSymbols(c("XAU/USD","XPT/USD","XPD/USD","XAG/USD"),src="oanda")
#setup the plot area, each TA is another graph
layout(matrix(1:4, nrow=2))
#charts to be included
chartSeries(XAUUSD,name="Gold (.oz) in USD", layout=NULL)
chartSeries(XPTUSD,name="Platinum (.oz) in USD", layout=NULL)
chartSeries(XAGUSD,name="Silver (.oz) in USD", layout=NULL)
```

Interest Rate Dashboard
Another R script that charts the last 36 months of the following interest rates: 1 year U.S. Treasury, 10 year TIPS, 30 year fixed mortgage, Prime, Moody’s Aaa Corporate, and Moody’s Baa Corporate.

```library(quantmod)
getSymbols("DGS1",src="FRED") #1 Year US Treasury Daily Constant Maturity rate
getSymbols("DPRIME",src="FRED") #Daily Prime Loan Rate
getSymbols("DAAA",src="FRED") #Daily Moody's Aaa Corporate Bond Yield
getSymbols("DBAA",src="FRED") #Daily Moody's Baa Corporate Bond Yield
getSymbols("MORTG",src="FRED") #30 Year Conventional Mortgage Rate
getSymbols("FII10",src="FRED") #10 Year TIPS Constant Maturity
# Chart Data
layout(matrix(1:6, nrow=3))
chartSeries(last(DGS1,'36 months'),name="US Treasury 1 Year Constant Maturity",layout=NULL)
chartSeries(last(FII10,'36 months'),name="10 Year TIPS Constant Maturity",layout=NULL)
chartSeries(last(MORTG,'36 months'),name="30 Year Fixed Mortgage Rate",layout=NULL)
chartSeries(last(DPRIME,'36 months'),name="Prime Loan Rate",layout=NULL)
chartSeries(last(DAAA,'36 months'),name="Moody's Aaa Corporate Yield",layout=NULL)
chartSeries(last(DBAA,'36 months'),name="Moody's Baa Corporate Yield",layout=NULL)
```

Rolling Correlations
Chart rolling correlations with a 3 month window.

```library(quantmod)
getSymbols(c("SPY","^DJI"),src="yahoo")
data=data.frame(SPY[,6],DJI[,6])
data=as.xts(data,order.by=as.Date(row.names(data),"%Y-%m-%d"))
c1=rollapply(data,65,cor,by.column=F)
Correlation=c1[,2]; chartSeries(Correlation)
```
Posted on Categories Code, R

## First Database in R

The number of simulations I am now running in R consumes all the memory on my workstation causing it to freeze. While I would like to execute the simulations in smaller batches, I need to keep a record of the intermediate data generated which is currently being stored in arrays. One possible solution would be to generate many CSV files to store the intermediate data and read from those but reassembling the data for audit purposes would not be practical. After some excellent suggestions on Stack Overflow, I narrowed my options down to SQLite and MySQL databases with a preference for SQLite due to simplicity. Not being a command line purist, I thought the next step was to find a GUI for setting up the database. While SQLite Database Browser seemed to be the only FOSS GUI available, it requires the Qt library to run and I prefer not to install additional components on my Mac when possible. MySQL does have a FOSS GUI called MySQL Workbench and Thomas Henlich created a plugin for exporting to SQLite but it turns out that SQLite is easy enough to use without a GUI even if you have no prior database experience. The easiest way to get a handle on it is to use a known data set and learn how to send and retrieve it from SQLite using R code. I highly recommend trying to run the database from disk rather than memory since it provides a closer approximation to the problem you are likely to be solving.

Here’s a short example of reading a data set that is currently stored in a csv format, creating a SQLite database, writing the data into a table, and retrieving the information. Make sure that the RSQLite package is installed and active.

```# Read data
# Create DB
testdb=dbConnect(SQLite(), dbname = "/yourdirectory/testdb.dat")
# Write the data set into a table called table1
dbWriteTable(testdb,"table1",dataset)
# List the tables available in the database
dbListTables(testdb)
# Remove the original data to free up memory
rm(dataset)
# Retrieve the entire table
# Retrieve the single column called series from the table
buf<-dbSendQuery(testdb,"select series from table1")
testing<-fetch(buf,n=-1); dbClearResult(buf)
dbDisconnect(testdb); rm(buf,testdb)
```

SQL queries generate a result that is stored in a buffer. Fetch gets data from the buffer and directs it to the variable within R. Before doing another SQL query on the same data, you need to clear the buffer using dbClearResult. This process gets to be a pain when making many queries but the SQLiteDF package has an excellent method for treating SQLite database tables as data frames. I also recommend reading about the TSSQLite package if you are using time series data and work with zoo objects.

Posted on Categories Code, R

## Introduction to Bootstrapping with R

Bootstrapping is a process where your original data is re-sampled to produce a distribution of a single statistic such as the mean. The Wikipedia article has more information here. Since time-series data often have some amount of dependency from one period to the next, we re-sample the original data in blocks. Assuming your data set has 100 observations and the block size is 6, we start at a random observation and sample the next 6 observations. We start at another random observation and sample another consecutive 6 observations repeating this process until we have 100 observations which is called a replicate. (When n/block size is not an integer, we get a shorter block at the end.) The statistic (in this case the mean) is calculated for each replicate. Multiple replicates are used to construct a distribution of the statistic so we can now draw inferences from the data. Since the function tsboot only returns the result of bootstrapping the statistic, you will need to find the actual data in each replicate in order for others to reproduce your results. The original data is not stored in the output but the index of the original data can be obtained using the boot.array command. Before you use your newly generated data, you will want to check whether the settings you used such as the number of replicates and the block size are adequate to capture the statistic of interest. A simple plot of the tsboot output will do the trick. For a more in-depth analysis of the proper block size, check out the b.star function in the np package and research by Poltis and White (2004). When you tire of calculating basic statistics, tsboot will accept a custom function that can be used instead of a command such as “mean” to calculate the statistic. The December 2002 edition of R News has a good overview of the boot package.

```require(boot)
# Simple example of bootstrapping mean from 100 random numbers
x <- rnorm(100)
y <- tsboot(x, mean, R=10, l=20, sim=”fixed”)
# histogram of R number of statistic (index = t of interest from tsboot output)
plot(y, index=1)
# matrix of the data index (column) occurring in bootstrap replicate (row)
y.array <- boot.array(y)
# Write to CSV
write.csv(y.array,”/yourdirectory/yourfile1.csv”)
write.csv(x,”/yourdirectory/yourfile2.csv”)
```
Posted on Categories Code, R